Electronic voting (e-voting) is a concept which proposes the combination of electronic technologies for collecting, transmitting and counting the votes, and a natural component of the e-government system, common is in developed countries. However, it would be wrong to assume that electronic voting is something unique and a distinctive feature of the “monster” of the world economy. Along with such countries as the UK, USA, Canada, Switzerland and the Netherlands, electronic elections are organized for a long time, for example, Peru and Venezuela, as well as a number of former Soviet republics.
Under the electronic elections themselves the use of different kinds of technologies, such as electronic voting and counting of votes is understood. Among the existing species of the first group of funds touch screens, buttons and other options for fixing the vote, accumulating data on special media can be distinguished. The main risks in this embodiment are connected with the integrity of the votes transmitted to the media, and the correctness of its information in the common database. Also Internet voting system in which e-newsletters and voting results are transmitted over public networks are widespread nowadays. Issues of confidentiality and integrity of information on the will of the citizens are highly relevant, as well as the identification and authentication of the voter. On the paper-electronic voting systems the newsletter is still made of paper, but vote count is carried out by means of electronic scanning. Here again, it is important to ensure the correct recognition of the label by the corresponding electronic device.
Obviously, the introduction of electronic voting in many countries especially those which refer to former USSR ones will invariably face a number of difficulties. Let’s take Ukraine as the example. First, in the system of Internet voting it is important to make sure that a particular person has voted (in this case remember that the result itself must remain confidential). This requires the identification, for example via e-passport, which is still at the stage of the project in many countries. Next, it must be ensured that the data will be transferred to the vote counting center correctly. Control of their integrity could be achieved by using digital signatures. However, not all of the Ukrainian constituents have it, and its very use calls into question the choice of anonymity.
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